- Disqualification - elimination from all placings and prizes,
and elimination from any subsequent heats (if any)
- Fine - fines are permitted in races
- Suspension - Chief Referee recommends suspensions for riders
2.13 Protest - a request by a rider or team manager to have the
Chief Referee review a decision, or to have the Chief Judge
review the results.
2.14 Omnium - An omnium is a set of races in which riders
compete for points in each event and final placings are
determined by total points in all events. Different numbers of
points may be given in different events. The scoring scheme
shall be specified in writing prior to the start of the first
race. Generally the points awarded in each event shall be
7-5-3-2-1 for first through fifth places. In case of a tie on
total points, the tie will be broken in favor of the rider who
(a) The most first place finishes or, if still tied, the most
second place finishes, etc., or if still tied;
(b)The highest placing in the last race, or the race nearest the
last race of the omnium in which at least one of the tied riders
3.1. The officials at a race may include:
Chief Referee, Assistant Referees
Chief Judge, Assistant Judges
Chief Timer, Assistant Timers
There must always be a Chief Referee. Presence of the other
types of officials depends upon the type of event.
3.2 All officials will enforce the regulations impartially.
3.5.1 CHIEF REFEREE
The Chief Referee shall enforce and interpret these, and any
specific rules of the race. In addition, the Chief Referee
- make the final decision in any case or appeal not specifically
covered by these rules. Any such decision is beyond appeal.
- if necessary, alter the conditions of any race in the interest
of safety, including cancellation of a race if necessary.
- make the final decision on any penalties to be imposed.
- supervise the other working officials on site.
- ensure that the organizer has fulfilled all necessary
conditions to ensure a safe and fair race.
- render the final decision on any question concerning entries,
including ruling on eligibility of a competitor for a given
- submit recommendations for suspension immediately following an
event in written form. This may be delivered directly or by
e-mail, fax or regular mail. Recommendations for suspension must
be posted within 24 hours. Details of the recommendation must be
included in the Chief Referee's Report.
3.5.2 ASSISTANT REFEREES
The assistant referees work under the direction of the Chief
Referee. They will report to the Chief Referee whenever a rule
infraction is observed or when otherwise appropriate.
3.5.3 CHIEF JUDGE
- The Chief Judge is responsible for the results of any race
that is not a time trial. The Chief Judge will use input from
the assistant judges, but the ultimate decision is solely from
the Chief Judge.
- The Chief Judge should use any photo finish equipment
available in order to make the best possible decision regarding
placement of riders.
- The Chief Judge will attempt to place as many competitors as
possible in each race and insure that all results are compiled
and presented to the Chief Referee.
3.5.4 ASSISTANT JUDGES
The Assistant Judges will work under the Chief Judge and provide
any information the Chief Judge requests.
3.5.5 CHIEF TIMER
The Chief Timer will be responsible for the results of any time
trial event. The Chief Timer and the Chief Judge may be a
3.5.6 ASSISTANT TIMERS
Assistant timers work under the direction of the Chief Timer.
Assistant timers and judges may be combined positions.
The starter is responsible for the start of the race. The
starter's responsibilities may be assigned to other officials.
The Registrar will be responsible for overseeing the registering
or riders, collection of entry and other rider fees and
certifying the qualifications of the rider to compete in the
fields for which they register.
4. FIELD LIMITS
4.1 Unless otherwise stated in the entry form:
- the minimum field size is 5.
- maximum field limit will be 100 riders.
- maximum field limit for category 5 is 50 riders.
- maximum field limit for a field containing category 5 riders
is 75 riders.
4.2 If the number of riders entered in a race is less than the
minimum, the promoter may choose to cancel the race and refund
the entry fees or to combine the race (and its prize list) with
another race on the program.
4.3 Maximum field limits may be modified by the chief referee
5. CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT
Every rider warming up or racing while at the race venue shall
wear a protective, securely fastened helmet that satisfies at
least one of the following helmet standards:
- US Department of Transportation (DOT)
- American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard Z90.4
- Snell Memorial Foundation Standard "B" or "N" series
- American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard
- Canadian Standards Association standard (CSA) CAN/CSA-D113.2-M
- US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
- CEN European Standard
Riders shall show documentary proof of this, such as a
manufacturer's label, upon request by race officials. It is the
rider's responsibility to select and wear such a helmet that
offers sufficient protection against head injury and does not
restrict the rider's vision (disqualification for failure to
wear such a helmet or for removing it during a race). The racing
organization makes no warranties or representations regarding
the protective adequacy or fitness for competition of any
helmets. A rider, by entering an event conducted under these
rules, agrees to hold the racing organization harmless from any
and all claims arising from the use of any particular helmet.
Wearing of the helmet is mandatory during training rides on
5.2.1 No article of clothing may be worn that serves solely an
5.2.2 All clothing and equipment will be in good repair and
reasonably clean at the start.
18.104.22.168 Bicycles must be propelled by the rider's legs only. No
stored propulsion mechanism is allowed.
22.214.171.124 Bicycles must be no more than 2 meters long and 75 cm
wide. Tandems may be up to 3 meters long.
126.96.36.199 Nothing may be added to the basic bicycle to reduce air
resistance. EXCEPTION: spoke covers may be used.
188.8.131.52 Fully enclosed or disc front wheels or spoke covers on
front wheels are not allowed in mass start events.
184.108.40.206 The handlebars and stem will not present a danger.
Handlebars that allow for support of the forearms may not be
used in mass start events. Handlebar ends and extensions shall
be plugged and must not have sharp or jagged ends.
5.4 Selection of equipment and clothing are solely the
responsibility of the rider. THE RACING ORGANIZATION assumes no
responsibility for safety or performance of any items selected
by the rider. Each rider is responsible for proper maintenance
of his/her clothing and equipment. The Chief Referee may
disallow the start of any rider using equipment or clothing
deemed dangerous or inadequate.
5.5 RULES SPECIFIC TO TRACK RACING
5.5.1 For mass start events:
- Bicycles shall not have brakes.
- Bicycles must have a single fixed gear.
- Handlebar ends that point up or forward or that allow for
support of the forearm are not allowed.
5.5.2 For timed trialed events:
- A bicycle with shifting mechanism, brakes and freewheel may be
used but gear shifting is not allowed during the race.
- Riders may use upturned or forward pointing handlebars or bars
that provide support for the forearms (i.e. cow-horn, tri bars,
6.1 Shall either be the numbers provided by THE RACING
ORGANIZATION. Numbers from other races may not be used. Penalty
or disqualification is at the discretion of the Race Official.
6.2 Numbers will be block figures and will be easily read at a
distance. They will be black figures on a white background.
Riders will place their numbers according to the instructions of
the officials and/or race organizer.
6.3 No rider shall cut, fold, mutilate, trim or apply stickers
to the race number, nor shall they sell, trade or give the
issued number to another individual. Penalty or disqualification
is at the discretion of the Race Official.
6.4 Unreadable numbers may not be placed.
6.5 The numbers shall be a minimum of 12 cm high on a minimum 20
cm by 20 cm background.
7. START OF A RACE
7.1 No race will start before the time stated in the race
announcement unless every possible registered rider is present
and agrees to the earlier start time.
7.2 It is the responsibility of each rider to be at the start
line on time.
7.3 The start will be signaled by a single gun shot, whistle,
flag, or verbal command.
7.4 The Starter alone determines the validity of the start. An
honorary Starter may be requested by the organizer, but will
have no official function except to give the start signal.
7.5 All riders will start in the same manner (with holders, with
one foot on the ground, rolling start, etc.).
7.6 The starter may use a neutral lap to start the race if
deemed necessary for safety or fairness.
8. FINISH OF A RACE
8.1 A rider finishes when the front tire first penetrates the
imaginary vertical plane above the leading edge of the finish
line. EXCEPTION: Events where a tape switch or other timing
device is used.
8.2 The last lap is signaled by the ringing of a bell. A '1'
will be displayed on the lap cards. If the bell is rung on the
wrong lap, the Chief Referee will determine whether the finish
will be on that lap or on the originally planned lap.
8.3 If two or more riders are in a dead heat for first place,
they will ride the final part of the race (normally 1000 meters)
to break the dead heat. If a dead heat is not for first place,
the riders will be placed equal and any prizes will be split
8.4 Once the first rider has finished, the Chief Referee may
excuse any competitor from completing the entire distance if the
result is a foregone conclusion.
8.5 The Chief Judge will compile the results as quickly as
possible and ensure that a copy is posted for the riders to
9. RIDER CONDUCT
9.1 Riders are responsible for their own conduct, including
arriving on time with the correct equipment. No rider shall
benefit from his or her misconduct. No team shall benefit from
its misconduct, or the misconduct of one of its members.
9.2 Misconduct may be punished at the discretion of the Chief
Referee. The forms of misconduct include, but are not limited
- Unsportsmanlike conduct
- Fraud (including falsifying information on an entry)
- Causing any race to have a result other than on the merits of
- Dangerous Riding
- Making an abrupt motion which interferes with the forward
progress of another rider
- Using foul or abusive language or conduct toward any
- Pushing or holding another rider (whether on a different team
or not) except in Madison where riders may only push their
- Failure to follow a referee's order
- Completing any part of the course without a bicycle. (It is
not required to ride the bicycle the entire course.)
- Not maintaining equipment properly so that it is dangerous
(i.e. insufficient glue on tires, etc.)
- Riding on a race course when not entered in an event in
- Taking pace from a vehicle or from a rider in a different race
- Violating any of the Racing Rules
10.1 All protests concerning order of finish will be resolved by
the Chief Judge, whose decision is final and beyond appeal.
10.2 All protests concerning qualification of rider(s) or
equipment will be resolved by the Chief Referee before the start
of the race. The Chief Referee must make a decision before
allowing the race to start.
10.3 Protests concerning incidents during the race will be
presented to the Chief Referee in. They must be submitted within
15 minutes of the protester's finish. The Chief Referee will
decide the results of the protest and communicate them to all
10.4 The Chief Referee will keep the Chief Judge informed about
any decision or pending decision that could affect the results.
10.5 Any protest about the order of finish must be lodged within
15 minutes of posting. In series races results may be protested
until the end of sign in of the next race in the series. For the
last race in series events and for all other races, if there are
no protest within 15 minutes of posting the results will be
10.6 Prizes will not be distributed before15 minutes after the
final posting of results or before permission has been given to
do so by the Chief Judge.
11. TRACK RACING
11.1 TRACK MARKINGS
All lines on the track shall be of uniform width between 4 and 6
cm. The following shall be placed circumferentially around the
(a) The measurement line shall be black or white, to contrast
with the track, and shall be placed with its inner edge 20 cm
from the inner edge of the track. It shall be marked off at
every 5 meters and numbered at every 10 meters going
counterclockwise from the finish line. The official length of
the track is to be measured on the inner edge of this line.
(b) The sprinters line shall be red and shall be placed with its
outer edge 90 cm from the inner edge of the track.
(c) A blue band at least 20 cm wide shall be placed below the
inner edge of the track all the way around.
The following lines shall be placed perpendicular to the inner
(a) The finish line shall be black and placed in the middle of a
72 cm wide white strip for contrast.
(b) The 200 meter line shall be either black or white to
contrast with the track and shall be placed 200 meters before
the finish line. This line is used for sprint timing only.
(c) Two pursuit finish lines shall be red and located exactly in
the middle of the two straights, even with each other, and shall
extend from the inner edge halfway across the track.
(d) Where the finish lines for timed events do not coincide with
other markings they shall be red and shall extend from the inner
edge halfway across the track.
(e) Where the starting lines for timed events do not coincide
with other markings, they shall be red and shall extend from the
lower edge of the track to the sprinters line.
11.2 RIDING CONDUCT
These rules apply to scratch, handicap, miss-and-out, Madison,
and points races.
11.2.1 Leaders must occupy the sprinters lane unless far enough
in the lead so as not to interfere with competitors seeking to
pass. If the leader is below the sprinters line, the following
riders may not pass underneath [relegation or disqualification
11.2.3 A competitor overtaking another must pass on the outside
unless the rider ahead is riding above the sprinters line. A
rider who passes another must not in any way impede the progress
of the passed rider [relegation or disqualification].
11.2.4 In the homestretch on the last lap, the leader(s) must
ride a straight line parallel to the edge of the track
[relegation or disqualification)
11.2.5 Blue Band. In all races it is permissible to ride below
the measurement line, but never below the track surface on the
blue band [relegation or disqualification].
11.2.6 When a rider has a crash that does not present a danger
to the other riders, the race will not be neutralized. In case
of a crash that causes a hazard to the other riders, the race
may be neutralized by the starter. While the race is
neutralized, all riders must ride slowly around the top of the
track, maintaining their relative positions. Resumption of
racing will be signaled by the starter when it becomes safe.
11.2.7 Riders who suffer a mishap may be assisted in restarting.
11.2.8 A rider shall be considered to have gained a lap upon
reaching a position to take shelter behind the rearmost rider of
11.2.9 Starts will generally be rolling starts. The official
will signify the start of the race after riders are determined
to be properly bunched so as to give no undue advantage or
disadvantage to any rider. This signal shall be audible,
generally a whistle.
11.3 TYPES OF COMPETITION
11.3.1 SCRATCH RACE
A scratch race is one in which all riders start from the same
point at the same time. The race shall be run over a specified
number of laps and the riders classified according to the order
in which they cross the line on the final lap. If permitted by
the Chief Referee, free laps up to a distance of 1100 meters may
be taken in a case of a mishap. However, free laps may not be
taken in the final kilometer of the race. Riders taking free
laps may not return to the track in the final kilometer. Riders
who suffer a mishap and do not return to the track will not be
11.3.2 HANDICAP RACE
A handicap race is a race in which the stronger riders are given
either a greater distance to travel or a later start so as to
equalize competition. The starting positions or the time
allowances must be announced to all participants before the
start of the race. The official handicapper shall decide what
distance or time allowance is to be granted to each competitor.
The competitor must supply accurate information to the
handicapper. Starts will be made on the track itself unless the
banking is too steep for safety, in which case the competitors
shall start on the blue band. If two or more riders are to start
from the same point, they may be placed one after the other or
side by side, whichever is safer. The holders may be allowed to
run with their riders for a short distance at the start,
provided this is clearly stated before the race. The starter
shall be positioned so as to see all riders and may have an
assistant with a flag to assist in observing a possible false
A miss-and-out (sometimes called "devil take the hindmost") is a
mass start race in which the last rider over the line on
designated laps is eliminated from the race. Riders may be
eliminated every lap, every other lap, or on whatever regular
schedule is stipulated before the race. Gaining a lap shall not
prevent a rider from being pulled nor matter in the final
placings. The back edge of the rear tire determines who is the
last rider over the line. The Chief Judge shall notify the last
rider over the line. The rider shall withdraw with due caution
as soon as it is practical. If a rider does not withdraw as
instructed, the Chief Referee may call one or more free laps
until the rider has retired. [A rider who blatantly disregards
instructions to leave the field shall be subject to
disqualification from the remaining events in the meet and
possible suspension.] Riders suffering mishaps shall be
eliminated. When fewer than 8 riders remain, riders suffering
mishaps shall be placed ahead of riders already eliminated.
Finish. The miss-and-out may be ridden to the last person or to
a specified number of survivors. In the latter case, there may
be a free lap followed by a conventional sprint, judged on the
order of finish by the front wheels. The format to be used must
be explained to all riders before the start of the race.
Track Sprints involve a series of races, each with a small
number of riders. The number and composition of the races is
organized by the Chief Referee to meet the needs of the racing
program for the number of riders. The sprint rounds may be
preceded by a flying start 200 meter time trial to seed or
select riders who will take part in the sprint heats. Formats
(a) Championship format - riders compete in qualifying and
succeeding rounds in such a way that the fastest riders shall
meet in the final race.
(b) Round robin format - each entrant competes against every
other entrant. The winning rider of each pairing shall receive
one point. The overall placings are determined by the number of
points gained in all matches. If a rider does not complete the
entire series of matches, then any points gained by or at the
expense of that rider are canceled. In case of a tie, the tie
will be broken in favor of the rider who:
(1) Scored the greatest number of points in the matches against
the other tied riders; or,
(2) If still tied, has the highest placing in an additional
sprint in which all riders who are still tied compete, or
(3) If still tied, wins a final match of the tied riders
(c) Exhibition sprints follow the format of championship
sprints, but may vary in the number of competitors allowed in
the qualifying and final rounds and in the distance of the
sprints. Repechage rounds and the requirement that a rider lose
twice before being eliminated may be omitted.
When rider seeding is based on a time trial, only bicycles that
meet sprint standards shall be used.
Distance. Sprints are run over two laps on a track of 333.33
meters or greater or over three laps on a smaller track or as
designated by the officals.
The starting position of each rider shall be decided by the
drawing of lots. The rider drawing the inside position is
obligated to lead at the start. Following the start, the leader
may not perform a standstill for more than 30 seconds. If he or
she does, the official shall require the rider initiating the
standstill to continue the race. If the rider fails to continue,
the starter shall stop the race, after a warning, and declare
the other rider the winner of the heat. In a three or four-up
race, the race shall be immediately rerun as a two or three-up
race, without the relegated rider. A maximum of two standstills
shall be permitted for each race. The rider on the inside of the
track, unless overtaken, shall lead until reaching the pursuit
line on the opposite side of the track or another point on the
track as designated by the official before the start of the
race. Should the race be run in two heats, each rider shall lead
one heat. A further draw shall be made if a third and deciding
heat proves necessary.
Stoppage. Once the start has been given and judged valid by the
starter, the race shall not be stopped without a legitimate
(a) During the slow part of the race, the starter may stop the
race if a rider:
(1) Backs up more than 20 cm (8 inches) [1/4 wheel rotation with
a 700c tire];
(2) Does a standstill on the blue band;
(3) Touches the track surface or the outside fence or railing;
(4) During a standstill touches an opponent or jumps his bike;
[The rider responsible shall lead the reride]
b) Should any rider suffer a mishap at any time during the race,
a restart shall be signaled by the starter unless it is obvious
that at the moment, the rider concerned had no chance to place.
In a reride following a mishap, the starting positions of the
riders are not changed.
(c) Should a race be stopped because of an apparent mishap that
turns out to not be legitimate, the race shall be restarted
without the rider at fault.
Before the sprint has begun riders may utilize the full width of
the track, but must leave room on the right for riders to pass
and avoid movements that could cause a collision, a fall, or
force a rider off the track.
Once the sprint has begun (the riders are moving at full speed
or near full speed):
(a)No rider may attempt to overtake an opponent using the blue
band, either while passing or pulling out of a passing maneuver;
(b) The leader must always leave room on the right for other
riders to pass. The leader is not obligated to leave room on the
left, but may not enter the sprinters lane if it is occupied,
except with a clear lead, and in no case may force an opponent
off the track;
(c) If the leader is below the sprinters line, he or she must
stay below the sprinters line until the finish and all following
riders must pass on the right and outside the sprinters lane.
However, the leader may come out of the sprinters lane if he or
she is so far ahead that there is no hindrance to opponents;
d) If the leader is riding above the sprinters line, he or she
shall make no abrupt motion to keep other riders from passing
and may make no move to the right (whether abrupt or not) that
could have caused a fall or that exceeds 90 cm. (same as the
width of the sprinters lane). Following riders may pass on
either side. The leader may move to the left into the sprinters
lane only if the trailing edge of the leader's rear wheel is
ahead of the leading edge of the front wheel of the following
rider [relegation for foul riding]. There is no penalty at the
finish if the lead rider accidentally drops below the
measurement line or even onto the blue band.
Falls. A rider in a two-up sprint who intentionally causes
another rider to fall shall be disqualified. A rider who falls
while attempting an illegal maneuver shall be relegated. The
wronged party shall be declared the winner without necessarily
passing the finish line.
No-shows. If one rider in a two-up heat fails to appear, that
rider loses the sprint and the other rider must put in an
appearance on the starting line in order to be declared the
winner, but need not cover the distance. The losing rider may
compete in a subsequent ride.
Blocking. In a sprint with three or more contestants, a rider
who is hemmed in at the bottom by other riders may not force his
way out of the box, nor may a rider block or interfere with
another rider [relegation or disqualification].
No rider may deliberately cause a crash disqualification].
Whenever such a situation is detected the race should be
stopped, if not completed, and in any case shall be rerun
without the rider responsible. In the case of an accidental
collision before the sprint has begun, the race will be stopped
by the starter and rerun with the original participants in the
same starting positions.
In the case of a dead heat, the race will be rerun with only the
riders who made the dead heat.
11.3.4 TANDEM SPRINT
Tandem sprint events on the track shall be run in accordance
with sprint regulations except that:
(a) Tandem sprints shall be run over the integral number of laps
nearest to 1300 meters for the particular track;
(b)In no case shall more than four tandems be raced together, or
three on tracks smaller than 333 meters
(c)When flying start time trials are used to seed riders, the
timing distance shall be either the complete length of the track
or 400 meters, whichever is less.
A Keirin is a race in which riders sprint after completing a
certain number of laps behind a pacer. The race shall be run
over the integral number of laps nearest to 2000 meters for the
particular track. No more than nine riders may compete in a
Keirin. If the number of entrants warrants, there may be
qualification and/or repechage rounds leading to a final race.
Normally the pacer rides a derny or motorized pacing bicycle; a
tandem may be used when practicable. Sprint Rules Apply. Except
as provided below, rules regarding track sprint riding shall
apply to the Keirin.
(a) The starting positions of the riders shall be determined by
drawing lots. The riders shall be placed side by side on the
pursuit line with the sprinters lane being left free. The riders
shall be held by assistants. The start shall be given when the
pacer approaches the pursuit line in the sprinters lane. Unless
another rider assumes the responsibility, the rider who drew #1
may be required to follow the wheel of the pacer for at least
the first lap, failing which the starter shall stop the race and
the rider will be eliminated. The rider who drew #2 shall lead
after the restart.
(b) The pacer shall ride on the measurement line, starting at 25
kph (13 mph) and shall gradually increase speed to 45 kph (28
mph). He shall leave the track when ordered to do so by the
starter, in principle 600-700
meters before the finish.
(c) In the case of a mishap in the first half lap, the race
shall be stopped (immediate restart).
(d)If the leading edge of the front wheel of any rider's bicycle
draws even with the back edge of the pacer's rear wheel while
the pacer is still on the track, the rider shall be
(e) The race will be stopped in the event of illegal behavior by
one or more riders while behind the
pacer. The race shall be rerun without the rider(s) at fault.
(f) Any other restarts are at the discretion of the Chief
11.3.6 TIME TRIAL
Riders are timed over a fixed distance and compete one at a
time. Starts may be either flying or standing, as specified. If
a session is interrupted, all competitors must ride in a
subsequent session. In flying start events, two laps are
permitted on tracks 333 m or less in length before timing
Standing Start Events. The rider shall be held by an official at
the start and shall be neither restrained nor pushed. The
starter shall insure that each rider starts within the sprinters
lane, with the leading edge of the front wheel directly over the
starting line and the bicycle not pointed up or down the track.
Restarts. In case of an apparent mishap, the officials shall
immediately determine the cause. If the mishap is verified, the
rider is entitled to a delayed restart, which will be made after
the next five riders have started. If there are not five riders
remaining, the restart shall be after 10 minutes [any rider who
intentionally causes a mishap shall be disqualified]. In the
case of a false start or unverified mishap the rider restarts
immediately. A rider is permitted at most, one restart in any
Should two or more riders make the same time, they shall be
The blue band shall be made impractical for riding by the
placement of sponges 50 cm by 8 cm by 8 cm in the turns at 5
meter intervals 20 cm below the lower edge of the measurement
line. [No penalty for riding on sponges, disqualification for
riding below the sponges.]
11.3.7 INDIVIDUAL PURSUIT
Individual Pursuit is a time trialed race between competitors
who are started at equal intervals around the track, and is run
until one rider catches the others or until a certain distance
is covered, as specified in advance. A rider catches another by
overtaking and drawing even.
Race format - At a minimum there will be a single ride and
racers will be ranked by time. There may be further rounds at
the discretion of the race organizer. The format for the
organization of pursuit rounds shall be clearly explained to the
riders prior to the race, preferable posted or in writing.
Timing - Both riders will be timed at half-laps throughout the
Coach - One person only may indicate a rider's position in
relation to the other rider. That person may occupy a position
before or after the rider's finish line, but shall not make any
rash gestures of encouragement.
Recovery Interval - A rider may not participate in more than two
pursuit matches on the same day except in unavoidable
circumstances, which shall be decided by the Chief Referee. A
minimum interval of two hours must be allowed between rides.
(a) There shall be separate lap cards and a bell for each rider.
(b) A red disc shall be placed in the home straight and a green
disc in the back straight exactly at the starting points of each
rider. There shall be conspicuous markers 30 meters ahead of the
starting point of each rider.
(c) A single green flag and a single red flag may mark the first
kilometer of each rider respectively. A double green flag and a
double red flag may mark the last kilometer of each rider
respectively. These discs and flags permit the starter to
determine the location of the rider for the purpose of calling
(a) The two riders shall be positioned to start on the inside of
the track diametrically opposite each other.
(b) The start shall be by gunshot or start tones. The starter
and assistant starter shall be in the center of the track. The
riders shall be held by officials and neither restrained nor
pushed. The same two officials shall hold all riders if
possible. The referees located at each starting point shall
insure that all riders start in exactly the same manner, with
the front part of their front wheel directly over the starting
line and the bicycle not pointed up or down the track. The
referee puts up a flag when the rider is ready.
(c) The starter within the first 30 meters shall call a false
start should either rider move forward before the gun is fired
or if either rider is pushed.
(d) After the qualifying round, the rider with the faster time
in the preceding round shall be started so as to finish in the
(a) The officials must immediately determine the cause for
stoppage and whether or not a legitimate mishap has occurred.
(b)Qualifying round: If either rider has a mishap, the other
rider shall continue the time trial. The rider suffering the
mishap shall ride at the end of the qualifying round, either
alone or against another rider who has suffered a mishap.
(c) Quarterfinal, semifinal, or final: If either rider has a
mishap in the first kilometer, the race will be stopped and
entirely rerun. If a mishap occurs after the first kilometer but
before the last, the race will be stopped and restarted with
both riders positioned relative to the last half-lap lines they
crossed; the race leader will be on the line and the other rider
a distance back of the line equivalent to the gap in seconds,
B = (G x L) / (2 x T) where;
B = Distance back of the half-lap line for the slower rider;
G = Gap in seconds between the time of the faster and slower
at the last completed half-lap;
L = Length of one lap of the track;
T = Time of the slower rider in completing the last half-lap.
If either rider suffers a mishap in the last kilometer, the
starter shall stop the race and the times at the preceding
half-lap shall be used to decide the winner. Should the lead
rider have a mishap in the last kilometer of the quarterfinals,
this rider's average speed will be used to calculate a time to
allow a fair placement in the semifinal, where the formula for
the corrected time is:
C = L x R / D where;
C = Corrected time for the lead rider;
L = Time of the lead rider up to the last completed half-lap;
R = Total distance of the race;
D = Completed distance up to the last half-lap.
(a) Quarterfinal: A rider who catches the other must complete
the distance to record a time so as to be properly placed in the
semifinal. The rider who was caught is eliminated.
(b) Semifinal or Final: If one rider passes the other, the
starter shall signal the end of the race.
(c) In all rounds, if neither rider catches the other, then a
single gunshot may be fired when the first rider finishes and
another fired when the second rider finishes.
(d) If both riders have the same time at the finish, the riders
shall be placed according to the faster lap time nearest the
(e) Qualifying rounds: If a rider is caught both riders complete
the distance for time.
11.3.8 TEAM PURSUIT
Pursuit teams are made up of two or more riders. The rules for a
particular event must be explained to all participants before
the start, preferably posted or in writing. The explanation must
specify how many riders must finish and on which finisher the
time is taken.
Italian pursuit is a race between teams of any number of riders
over a specified distance. The teams are spaced at equal
intervals around the track at the start. The leading rider of
each team shall lead for one or two laps, as specified, then
pull off. The second rider shall then take the lead for the same
number of laps and also stop. The same procedure shall be
followed until there is only one rider on the track per team
during the last one or two laps. The team whose last rider is
farthest ahead as compared to the team's starting position,
Championship team pursuit.
Teams shall have three or four riders per team and cover a
distance of 4,000 meters. There may be up to six riders entered
for each team but a racing team of no more than four riders may
compete in a given session. Timing is taken from the front wheel
of the third rider. Both teams will be timed at full laps
throughout the race.
Coach. Only one person may indicate a team's position in
relation to the other team. That person may occupy a position
before or after the finish line, but shall not make any rash
gestures of encouragement.
Recovery Interval. A team should not participate in more than
two pursuit matches on the same day except in unavoidable
circumstances as determined by the Chief Referee. A minimum of
two hours should be allowed between rides.
The organization of various rounds in team pursuit shall be
included in the explanation of the event.
The equipment used for team pursuit shall be the same as for
individual pursuit except that the red and green flags, which
mark the first and last kilometer, are not needed.
(a) The two teams shall be positioned to start on the inside of
the track diametrically opposite each other. After the
qualifying round, the team with the faster time in the preceding
round shall be started so as to finish in the home straight.
(b) Each team must start in the same fashion. This may be either
of two ways:
(1) All four riders on the line with one meter between them or;
(2) Only the first rider on the line and the others at a 45
degree angle back of the first rider with one meter between
(c) The start shall be by gunshot or start tones. The starter
and assistant starter shall be in the center of the track. The
teams shall be held by officials and neither restrained nor
pushed. The same officials shall hold all riders if possible.
The officials located at each starting point shall insure that
all riders are lined up properly at the start and that the front
part of the front wheel of the first rider is directly over the
starting line and that no other rider is ahead of the first. All
bicycles must be lined up straight and not pointed up or down
(d) A false start shall be signaled within the first 30 meters
if any rider moves forward before the gun is fired or is pushed,
or if any rider other than the one on the inside takes the lead
before the 30 meter mark.
(e)Each team is allowed two rerides only for false starts.
Therefore, a team is entitled to only three starts.
(a) The officials must immediately determine the cause of any
stoppage and whether or not a legitimate mishap has occurred.
(b) Should an apparent mishap affecting only one rider not prove
legitimate, that rider shall be eliminated and only the
remaining three riders allowed in the reride.
(c) Qualifying Round. If one rider on a team has a mishap at any
time, the team may decide either to stop or continue to ride one
person short. If the team decides to stop, they must make their
intention known within one lap after the mishap. If the team
continues to ride and finishes one rider short, the resulting
time will be used to place them in the next round. If more than
one rider on a team has a mishap, the team shall stop and ride
again at the end of the qualifying round, either alone or
against another team that has also had a mishap.
(d) Quarterfinal, Semifinal, or Final Rounds. If any rider has a
mishap in the first half lap, the race will be stopped and
restarted by the starter. If one rider on either team has a
mishap after the first half lap, the other three riders must
continue. If more than one rider on either team has a mishap
after the first half lap, the starter shall stop the race and
the other team shall be declared the winner.
(a) In the qualifying round, if one team catches the other, both
shall continue and record a time for the distance.
(b) In the quarterfinal, if one team catches the other, it shall
continue to record a time so that it can be properly placed in
the semifinal. The team that was caught is eliminated.
(c) In the semifinal and final, if one team catches the other,
the starter shall stop the race. A team is considered to have
caught another team when the third rider draws even with the
third rider of the overtaken team.
(d) In all rounds, if one team does not catch the other, then a
single gunshot may be fired when the first team finishes the
specified distance and another shot when the second team
finishes. The team is considered to have finished when the third
rider crosses the line.
(e) If both teams have the same time at the finish, the teams
shall be placed according to the faster lap times nearest the
finish. Three riders must complete the distance or the team
cannot be classified.
No Pushing. The members of a team shall not be allowed to push
one another [disqualification in the qualifying round and
relegation to the next lower place in subsequent rounds].
11.3.9 TEAM SPRINT
Team Sprint is a race run over laps of a track by teams of
riders, each of whom shall lead for one lap. The number of
riders per team (and total laps) shall be specified; generally
the number of riders will be three for men and two for women.
The event may be organized into qualifying heats leading to a
final. The qualifying heats select the four best teams on the
basis of their times. In the finals, the teams with the two best
times ride off for first and second and the others ride off for
third and fourth. In three lap events there may be four riders
entered for each team but a racing team of no more than three of
those riders may compete in a given session.
(a) In the finals, the team with the best time shall start in
the home straight.
(b) The composition of a team may be modified from one round to
another but an incomplete team (less than one riders per lap)
may not start.
(c) If any member of a team starts before the pistol shot a
false start shall be called.
(a) The leading rider shall move toward the outside of the track
after one lap and then drop back and leave the track without
hindering the other team.
(b) The next rider shall lead the following lap and then shall
drop out in the same manner.
(c) The last rider shall complete the last lap alone.
(d) The lead rider must relinquish the lead no more than 13
meters before or after the end of the lap that rider is to lead.
(A rider relinquishes the lead by moving up the track and out of
the way of the next rider by at least 1 meter.)
(e) No rider may push or pull another rider. [Relegation to last
place for violation of any of these rules.]
In case of a mishap or false start, the team may try again at
the end of the heats and the other team continues. However, if
the mishap occurs after 30 meters and before the end of the
second lap, the team may choose to continue. In the event of a
second mishap or false start no restart is allowed.
The team whose final rider crosses the line first shall be the
winner. In case of a tie, the team with the best time on the
final lap shall win. All timings are based on the lead rider.
11.3.10 POINTS RACE
A points race is a rolling start scratch race in which sprints
for points are held on certain laps as designated by the
official. For standard points races this is usually every five
laps, or every 2 km. For standard Points races in each sprint,
the first four riders shall normally be awarded points in order
of finish as follows: 5 points, 3 points, 2 points, 1 point. The
number of points may be doubled on the final sprint or on
intermediate sprints as designated by the official. Any rider
who gains a lap on the main field will receive 20 points. Any
rider who loses a lap to the main field will lose 20 points.
Other variations of arranging sprint laps and awarding points
may be used in other types of points races, such as Progressive
Points, Point-A-Lap, etc. In all cases the highest points are
awarded to the riders finishing ahead, i.e. there may be no
disincentive points. The arrangement and timing of the sprints
will be explained to the riders verbally at the start and/or in
writing prior to the race. The main group is the largest group
on the track. If two or more groups are the same size, the
leading group shall be the main group.
(a) A rider shall be considered to have lapped the main group
upon reaching a position to take shelter behind the main group.
(A rider or group of riders shall be considered to have taken
shelter behind the main group when the distance between the last
rider in the main group and the first rider of the overtaking
group is less than 5 meters.) (b) Riders who break away continue
to score points until they have lapped the main group. Once they
have lapped the main group, they must sprint with this group to
score additional points, even if they catch the group during a
(c) If the riders are strung out so that no main group exists,
the Chief Referee shall determine when a rider or group of
riders has passed enough riders to be credited with having
gained a lap.
(d)Riders attempting to gain a lap may not accept assistance
from riders who have lost contact with the back of the field.
Riders attempting to gain a lap may work together, but no
sacrifice of a rider's position to the advantage of another
rider shall be allowed [loss of points or laps that have been
(a) Riders who lose laps may sprint for points only after being
absorbed by the main group prior to the beginning of the sprint
lap. A rider may be considered to be absorbed when caught by the
lead rider in the main group. Riders may win points regardless
of how many laps they have lost.
(b)A rider who gains a lap and then loses contact does not lose
the lap until absorbed by the main group.
(c) Riders who fall two or more laps behind and are considered
to be out of contention may be withdrawn at the discretion of
the Chief Referee.
(a) In case of mishap, the rider involved shall be given one or
more free laps totaling nearest to 1100 meters per mishap.
(b) Free laps may not be taken in the final 5 laps of the race.
Riders taking a free lap may not return to the track in the
(c) To be eligible to score points in a sprint following a
rider's mishap, the rider must have rejoined the group they were
previously a part of before they start the sprint lap.
(a) A points race ends when the leader completes the required
distance or the designated time has elapsed. All other riders
will finish on the same lap as the leader. Riders who have
mishaps and who are prevented from returning to the track in the
last kilometer shall retain the points and laps that they had at
the time of the mishap relative to the main group. Other riders
who fail to complete the race shall not be placed.
(b). Points determine the final placings of riders when riders
are tied on points, the order of finish in the final sprint
shall be used to break the tie. Tied riders who cannot be placed
in the final sprint are placed according to the number of first
places in sprints. If still tied, then the number of second
places in sprints shall decide.
If rain or any other circumstance forces the race to be stopped
after two-thirds of the distance has been covered, the results
shall be final at the point of stoppage. Otherwise, the race
shall be rerun according to the instructions of the Chief
A Madison is a points race between teams of two or three riders
who relay each other for a specified distance or time. In no
case may more than two members of a team race at the same time.
Sprints for points shall be held in the same manner as a points
race. Generally sprints will be every 5 minutes or an integral
number of laps nearest to 4 kilometers. Lap cards shall be
displayed counting laps down each lap at least 5 laps preceding
sprints. The number of points normally is doubled on the last
sprint. The arrangement and timing of the sprints will be
explained to the riders verbally at the start and/or in writing
prior to the race. Gaining and losing laps and final placings of
teams in a Madison race are determined in the same way as for
riders in a points race. At the start of the race, one rider
from each team will be on the line and the other rider(s) will
be on relief. A rolling start will be used.
(a) A rider entering the track from the blue band shall do so on
the home straight or back straight and must not interfere with
riders already on the track. A rider leaving the track should
stop on the blue band in one of the straights, but never on
b) In order to make a change from racing rider to relief rider,
a rider must draw even with the teammate. The relay may be made
by touching, pushing, pulling, or by merely drawing even with
the partner. Handslings may be allowed if so specified by the
(c) A relay without the partners drawing even (a wireless pickup
may result in a team being penalized a lap.)
(d) In relieving, the members of a team must not interfere with
other competitors. The relieved rider must stay on the inside of
the track or continue in a straight line from wherever the
exchange was made until all other riders in that group have
passed safely. When the track is clear, the relieved rider may
move up the track and proceed slowly until time for the next
exchange. If there are special regulations on where the riders
must stay, they must be explained clearly to the riders before
(e) Exchanges shall be made as low as possible on the track.
Following riders will be expected to ride over exchanging
riders. [Relegation, points penalty or laps penalty,
Should one of the riders suffer a mishap, his teammate shall
immediately take the team position and continue to race without
relief until his teammate returns. If both riders suffer
mishaps, the team shall be entitled to free laps equal to the
number of laps nearest 1000 meters. On returning to the race, a
member of the team shall resume the position the team occupied
before the mishap. Teams taking free laps may not return to the
track in the final kilometer. There shall be no free laps taken
in the final 2000 meters of the race; a team entitled to free
laps at that point or prevented from returning to the track in
the final kilometer shall be placed according to the laps and
points held at the time of the mishap.
(a) A rider who loses a partner through retirement or mishap may
be teamed with another rider who has lost a partner. Such
reteaming shall be done at the discretion of the Chief Referee.
(b) In combining the remnants of two teams, the lower lap count
and points score of the two teams shall be used. Should the
reconstructed team be tied with another team, they shall be
placed behind that team.
The race ends when the leading team completes the required
distance or the designated time has elapsed. All other teams
will finish on the same lap as the leader. An audible signal,
generally a whistle, is given after all riders have completed
the final lap.